Regeneration is the renewal of germplasm accessions by sowing seeds or planting vegetative materials and harvesting the seeds or plant materials which will posses the same characteristics as the original population.
Germplasm regeneration is the most critical operation in genebank management, because it involves risks to the genetic integrity of germplasm accessions due to selection pressures, out-crossing, mechanical mixtures and other factors. The risk of genetic integrity loss is usually high when regenerating genetically heterogeneous germplasm accessions. Germplasm regeneration is also very expensive. Is usually necessitated for the following reasons
Characterizationis the description of plant germplasm. It determines the expression of highly heritable characters ranging from morphological or agronomical features to seed proteins or molecular markers .Characterization of germplasm is essential to provide information on the traits of accessions assuring the maximum utilization of the germplasm collection to the final users.
Normally it requires growing a representative number of plants (taking a sample from previously conserved seeds or plant tissue) in the field using a statistically sound replicated design during a full growing cycle, recording characters that are highly heritable (not much influenced by the environment), easily visible to the eye and expressed in all environments.